Nevertheless, many officials and trade experts say the USMCA`s greatest strength is its “modernization chapters,” some of which take stock of how the internet has changed trade since NAFTA began in 1994. To view the full text of the agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada, click here. During the 2016 US presidential election, Donald Trump`s campaign included a promise to renegotiate or cancel NAFTA if the renegotiations failed.  After his election, Trump made a number of changes that affect trade relations with other countries. The withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, the cessation of participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and the significant increase in tariffs with China were some of the measures he implemented and reaffirmed that he was serious in seeking changes to NAFTA.  Much of the debate about the virtues and mistakes of the USMCA is similar to the debate about all free trade agreements (SAAs), for example the nature of free trade agreements as public goods, potential violations of national sovereignty, and the role of commercial, labor, environmental, and consumer interests in shaping the language of trade agreements. Economic leaders on Tuesday asked the three countries, in a clear message to Trump, to oppose the imposition of tariffs “and other barriers or measures that will undermine the goals of the comprehensive trade agreement and weaken North America`s competitiveness.” The two countries have also pledged to start negotiations next year for a new and ambitious free trade agreement, which will go much further than the existing agreement. On March 13, 27, 2020, the House of Commons passed Bill C-4 transposing USMCA before exposing itself for 6 weeks due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to “exceptional circumstances,” third and final reading of the bill was considered passed without a recorded vote, as part of an omnibus deferral motion passed unanimously by all members present.  Prime Minister Justin Trudeau was not present because he was in self-isolation at home after his wife Sophie Grégoire Trudeau tested positive for COVID-19 infection. On the same day, the Senate passed the first, second and third readings of the act without recorded votes, and Governor General Julie Payette signed it shortly thereafter, thus concluding Canada`s ratification of the law.
   During the 2016 presidential campaign, Donald Trump promised to renegotiate NAFTA, which he called “the worst trade deal ever.” As president, he did. The result is the USMCA, which Trump signed in January and which he considered one of his most significant achievements in his State of the Union address. The Canadian government noted that the “CUSMA outcomes preserve key elements of the long-term trading relationship and contain new and updated provisions to address twenty-first century trade issues and promote opportunities.” The new chapter on digital trade contains the strongest digital trade disciplines of any international agreement and provides a solid foundation for expanding trade and investment in innovative products and services for which the United States has a competitive advantage. . . .